Eagle skull

Extinct birds

58 losses since human arrival

Wattlebirds

Huia
Kokako
Saddleback

Fruit-eating birds

Kereru (pigeon),  & 12 seed dispersers

Kakapo

Flightless
birds

Takahe  Kiwi
Kakapo  Penguin
Moa  Wren
Blue duck

Native ducks

Blue duck
Grey duck
Paradise shelduck
Shoveler, Scaup
Teal

Teal

Auckland Is.
Campbell Is.
Brown teal

Penguin

Yellow-eyed
Four crested
Little blue
White-flippered

Rediscovered birds

The remarkable return of five extinct species

Huia

Native
birds list

273 oceanic,
coastal and
terrestrial birds

Critically endangered birds

Nine Red List, 26 nationally critical

Parrots & Parakeets

Kea
Kea
Kaka
Kakapo
5 parakeets
Birds of prey

Birds of prey

Falcon, Harrier
Morepork
Laughing owl
Haast's eagle
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NEW  ZEALAND  ECOLOGY

WATTLEBIRDS

HUIA

The extinct huia Heteralocha acutirostris was endemic, as the only species in the Heteralocha genus, which belongs to the Callaeidae family, of the Passeriformes order of perching birds.

The huia was one of only three species that make up the entire Callaeidae family of New Zealand wattlebirds, which is endemic. Today, the family only includes kokako Callaeas cinerea, and saddleback Philesturnus carunculatus.

The wattlebirds of New Zealand are not found anywhere else in the world, and the huia was unique as the only bird in the world with completely different beak forms in the male and female.

The ancient Callaeidae family flew to New Zealand 60 million years ago, and like many birds in the isolated archipelago, adopted ground feeding habits in an ecology devoid of mammalian predators with the exception of three bat species.

The huia was unique as the only bird in the world with completely different beak forms in the male and female.

Extinction of the huia Heteralocha acutirostris in 1907 was a tragic loss to New Zealand's ancient native avifauna. It serves as a reminder of the importance of bird protection.

While today we are astounded by the ruthless hunting of huia to extinction during a very short period, and the ignorance of the time, even amongst respected ornithologists, we are left with no excuse for more bird losses with current knowledge of the value of biodiversity.

The huia was probably New Zealand's most eccentric bird. It was a large 48 cm (19 inch) black bird with a bright orange "wattle" at the base of an ivory beak. It had a distinguishing wide band of white at the end of its long tail feathers.

Huia were so sexually dimorphic, and unique because of the different beak forms of the male and female, that they were at first thought to be separate species.

They were normally found feeding in pairs. In cooperative roles, the male used his short strong beak, which resembled the beak of a starling, to break up rotting tree trunks in search of huhu bugs and other insects. The female used her long curved beak, which was like a nectar feeder's, to reach into otherwise unreachable places.

Huia

Image - John Gerrard Keulemans 1842-1912, Huia Heteralocha acutirostris 1888.  Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand must be obtained before any re-use of this image.

Huia feathers for fashion .....

Huia extinction is sadly related to an international fashion of wearing their long white-tipped tail feathers in hats.

During a royal visit to New Zealand, the Prince of York who later became King George V of England, was presented with a huia tail feather by a Maori chief.

Huia feathers are a traditional Maori symbol of authority.  The Prince of York followed the Maori custom of wearing huia tail feathers in headress, by placing the feather in his hat.  This set off a world fashion trend that was devastating for huia survival.

Tail feathers for men and women's hats, stuffed birds for collectors, and skins for museums were in such demand, that huia were hunted vigorously until it was no longer found.

The notable ornithologist Walter Buller, who killed large numbers of huia himself for museum collections, reported that a Maori hunting party collected 646 huia in a month.

While the Prince of York's visit obviously affected the plight of the huia, it is not known if it was the total cause of extinction, as the bird's native habitat had become severely depleted by 1907.

Huia hosted an exclusive louse .....

Huia had their own species of louse Rallicola extinctus, which went extinct along with its host.

Specimens of the louse, which lived in and fed on the huia's feathers, have been recovered from bird skins preserved in museums for 100 years.

The louse was recently discovered on the old huia skins, and has never been seen alive.

Endemism at family and order level .....

The Callaeidae family, with just three genera and four living and one extinct species is highly distinguished, because the entire family is endemic to New Zealand.

There are 14 families in the New Zealand terrestrial animal kingdom that are endemic, including Acanthisittidae (wrens, rockwren, rifleman), Leiopelmatidae (Leiopelma frogs), Mohouidae (brown creeper, whitehead, yellowhead), Mystacinidae (short-tailed bats), Notiomystidae (stitchbird), and Turnagridae (piopio).

The Callaeidae is one of 21 families of New Zealand birds, reptiles, frogs and bats that are not represented anywhere else in the world.

Another five families are in three orders that are endemic - Apterygiformes (Apterygidae family of kiwi), Dinornithiformes (three families of moa), and Rhynchocephalia (Sphenodontidae family of tuatara).

And the super family Strigopoidea containing the Strigopidae (kakapo), and Nestoridae (kea, kaka) families is also endemic to New Zealand.

Kakapo, Leiopelma frogs, piopio and stitchbird are the sole species in their families, Mystacina (three short-tailed bats) is the only genus in it's family, two Sphenodon species of tuatara are the only members of its familiy and its order, Apteryx (kiwi) is the only genus in its family and order, and three families of moa are the only members of their order.

References

Buller WL, A History of the birds of New Zealand, Sir Walter Lawry Buller, London 1888, The New Zealand Electronic Text Centre (Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 New Zealand Licence).

Clout MN, Hay JR, The importance of birds as browsers, pollinators and seed dispersers in New Zealand forests, New Zealand Journal of Ecology, Vol 12 (supplement) 1989.

Kelly D, Ladley JJ, Robertson AW, Anderson SH, Wotton DM, Wiser SK, Mutualisms with the wreckage of an avifauna: The status of bird pollination and fruit-dispersal in New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Ecology, (2010) 34(1): pp 66-85.

Oliver WRB, New Zealand birds, AH & AW Reed, Wellington 1955.

Image left: A male (left) and female (right) huia Heteralocha acutirostris. Permission of the Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand must be obtained before any re-use of this image.

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