Local food supplies will be negatively affected by decreasing fisheries in lakes due to rising water temperatures, which may be worsened by over-fishing.
Towards the end of the 21st century, projected sea-level rise will affect low-lying coastal areas with large populations. The cost of adaptation could amount to at least 5-10 percent of GDP.
Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate variability and change because of multiple stresses and low adaptive capacity. Some adaptation is taking place, however, this may be insufficient.
Asian flooding, water supply problems, hunger & disease .....
Glacier melt in the Himalayas is projected to increase flooding and rock avalanches, and affect water resources within the next 2 to 3 decades. This will be followed by decreased river flows as the glaciers recede.
There will be less freshwater in Central, South, East and Southeast Asia, which along with population growth and higher demand from higher living standards, could adversely affect more than a billion people by the 2050s.
Coastal areas, especially heavily-populated mega-delta regions in South, East and Southeast Asia, will be at greatest risk due to flooding from the sea and the rivers.
Climate change will impinge on sustainable development of most developing countries of Asia as
it compounds the pressures on natural resources and the environment from development.
It is projected that crop yields could increase up to 20 percent in East and Southeast Asia, but decrease 30 percent in Central and South Asia by 2050. The risk of hunger is projected to remain very high in several countries.
Endemic morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoeal disease associated with floods and droughts are expected to rise in East, South and Southeast Asia due to changes in the hydrological cycle. Increases in coastal water temperature would exacerbate the abundance and toxicity of cholera in South Asia.
Drought and fire in Australia .....
Less precipitation and increased evaporation will cause water security problems to intensify by 2030 in southern and eastern Australia.
Significant loss of biodiversity is projected by 2020 in ecologically-rich sites, including the
Great Barrier Reef, Queensland Wet Tropics, and Kakadu wetlands in southwest Australia.
Ongoing coastal development in areas such as Cairns and Southeast Queensland
are projected to exacerbate risks from sea-level rise and increases in the severity and frequency of storms and coastal flooding by 2050.
Production from agriculture and forestry by 2030 is projected to decline over much of southern and eastern Australia due to increased drought and fire.
Current changes to continue in Europe
Changes associated with climate have been documented for retreating
glaciers, longer growing seasons, a shift of the range of species, and health impacts due to a heat wave of
unprecedented magnitude. These changes are consistent with projected future changes.
Nearly all European regions are anticipated to be negatively affected by future impacts of climate
change, posing challenges to many economic sectors. Climate change is expected to magnify
regional differences in natural resources and assets.
There will be more risk of inland flash floods, frequent coastal flooding, and erosion from storms and sea level rise. The majority of organisms and ecosystems will have difficulty adapting to climate change.
Alpine areas will face glacier retreat, less snow cover and winter tourism, and the loss of up to 60 percent of species in some areas by 2080.
In Southern Europe, climate change is projected to worsen high temperatures and drought in a
region already vulnerable to climate variability. There will be less water, hydropower potential,
summer tourism, and crop production; and more health risks due to heat waves and wildfires.
In Central and Eastern Europe, summer rain will decrease, causing higher water stress, and health risks due to heat waves will increase. Forest productivity is expected to decline and the frequency of peatland fires to increase.
There will initially be mixed effects in Northern Europe, including benefits such as reduced heating demand, and increased crop yields and forest growth. However, as climate change continues, its negative impacts, including more frequent winter floods, endangered ecosystems and greater ground instability are likely to outweigh any benefit.
Dying rainforest and species extinctions in Latin America .....
By 2050, increases in temperature and decreases in soil water are projected to lead to
replacement of tropical forest by savanna in eastern Amazonia.
Semi-arid vegetation will tend to be replaced by arid vegetation. There is a risk of significant biodiversity loss through species extinction.
In drier areas, climate change is expected to lead to salinisation and desertification of agricultural land. Productivity of some important crops are projected to decrease and livestock productivity to decline. In temperate zones soybean yields are projected to increase.
Sea-level rise is predicted to cause increased risk of flooding in low-lying areas.
Increases in sea surface temperature are projected to have adverse effects on Mesoamerican coral reefs, and cause shifts in the location of south-east Pacific fish stocks.
Changes in precipitation and the disappearance of glaciers are projected to significantly affect water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation.
More agricultutal yield, but less water allocations in North America .....
Moderate climate change in the early decades of the century is projected to increase aggregate yields of rain-fed agriculture by 5-20 percent, but with regional variability. Major challenges are projected for crops that are near the warm end of their range or depend on highly utilised water resources.
Warming in western mountains will cause reduced snowpack, more winter flooding, and less
summer flow, exacerbating competition for over-allocated water resources.
Disturbances from pests, diseases, and fire are projected to have increasing impacts on forests, with an
extended period of high fire risk and large increases in area burned.
Health will be further challenged in cities that now experience heat waves, by more of them and a greater intensity and duration.
Coastal communities and habitats will be increasingly stressed by climate change impacts interacting with
development and pollution. Growth in population and rising infrastructure value will increase vulnerability, with losses projected to increase if the intensity of tropical storms increase.
Melting ice and rebuilding communities in polar regions .....
In the Polar Regions, the main projected biophysical effects are reductions in thickness and extent of glaciers and ice sheets, and changes in natural ecosystems with detrimental effects on many organisms including migratory birds, mammals and higher predators.
Impacts in the Arctic also include reduction in the extent of sea ice and permafrost, increased coastal erosion, and an increase in the depth of permafrost seasonal thawing.
Impacts on Arctic communities from changing snow and ice conditions, are projected to be mixed. There would be a detrimental impact on infrastructure and indigenous lifestyles.
In both polar regions, ecosystems and habitats are projected to be vulnerable, as climatic barriers to species’ invasions are lowered.
Arctic human communities are already adapting to climate change, but both external and internal stresses
challenge their capacities. Despite the resilience shown historically by Arctic indigenous
communities, some traditional ways of life are being threatened and substantial investments are needed to adapt of relocate communities.
Sea inundation and reduced water supply of small islands .....
All small islands are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, sea level rise and extreme events. Deterioration in coastal conditions through erosion of beaches and coral bleaching, is projected to affect fisheries, and reduce tourism.
Sea-level rise is expected to exacerbate inundation, storm surge, erosion and other coastal hazards, thus
threatening vital infrastructure, settlements and facilities that support the livelihood of island communities.
By 2050, climate change is predicted to reduce water resources in many small islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific, to where they cannot meet demand during low rainfall
With higher temperatures, increased invasion by non-native species is expected to occur, particularly on
middle and high-latitude islands.