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Native freshwater
fish species list

species list

Native Galaxiid fish

Kokopu, Inanga & Koaro

Native freshwater fish

Bully Lamprey Torrentfish Eel


Qualifiers for New Zealand threat classifications

CD  Conservation dependent

The taxon is likely to be moved to a higher threat category if current management is stopped.

DP  Data poor

Confidence in the listing is low due to poor assessment data being available.

De  Designated

A taxon that does not fit within criteria, and which has been designated to the most appropriate listing without the full application of criteria.

EW  Extinct in the wild

The taxon is only known in captivity or cultivation.

EF  Extreme fluctuations

The taxon has extreme unnatural population fluctuations, or natural fluctuations overlaying human-induced declines, that increase the threat of extinction. The lowest number of mature individuals should be used for determining population size.

HI  Human induced

Human induced loss of range.

Inc  Increasing

IE  Island endemic

OL  One location

PD  Partial decline

RR  Range restricted

RF  Recruitment failure

The current population may appear stable, but the age structure is such that future catastrophic declines are likely.

SO  Secure overseas

Secure in those parts of it's natural range outside New Zealand.

Sp  Sparse

Taxa occur within small and widely scattered populations.

St  Stable

Total population is stable, within a 10% factor, over the last 10 years or three generations, which ever is the longer period.



Evidence of a vicariant Gondwana origin of New Zealand's fresh-water fauna is provided by the relationship between Galaxiid fish and parasitic larvae of the freshwater mussel, genus Hyridella, which attach to the fish's gills to obtain nutrients and a free ride.  By coincidence, the mussel family Hyriidae occurs in New Zealand, South America and eastern Australia with Galaxiid fishes.  This indicates an ancient ancestry and Gondwana origin of some New Zealand freshwater invertebrates and Galaxiid fish.  There is more evidence with Temnocephala flatworms that attach to koura, the freshwater crayfish.  Flatworms have the same relationship with crayfish in Australia, and South America.

Class Bivalvia, Order Unionoida


 Freshwater mussel (kakahi) Hyridella aucklandica [Gray, 1843]

 Freshwater mussel (kakahi) Hyridella menziesii [Gray, 1843]
      [endemic] [5] Gradual decline

 Freshwater mussel Cucumerunio websteri
      Freshwater mussel (kakahi) Cucumerunio websteri delli
            [McMichael & Hiscock, 1958] [endemic] [8] Data deficient
      Freshwater mussel (kakahi) Cucumerunio websteri websteri
            [Simpson, 1902] [endemic] [8] Data deficient

Order Veneroida


 Freshwater clam Pisidium casertanum [Poli, 1781]

 Freshwater clam Pisidium hodgkini [Suter, 1905] [endemic]

 Freshwater clam Sphaerium novaezelandiae [Deshayes, 1854]

Class Polychaeta, Order Canalipalpata


 Polychaete worm Scolecolepides freemani
      [7] Range restricted

Order Aciculata


 Freshwater polychaete (worm) Namanereis tiriteae
      [Winterbourne, 1969] [6] Sparse SO

Class Malacostraca, Order Amphipoda


 Freshwater amphipod Chaetocorophium lucasi [Hurley, 1954]
      [endemic] [6] Sparse

Order Decapoda


 Northern koura (freshwater crayfish) Paranephrops planifrons
      [endemic] [5] Gradual decline See image above right

 Southern koura (freshwater crayfish) Paranephrops zealandicus
      [endemic] [5] Gradual decline


 Freshwater crab (Papaka wai maori) Amarinus lacustris
      [Chilton, 1882] [6] Sparse SO


 New Zealand freshwater shrimp (kouraura) Paratya curvirostris
      [Heller, 1862] [endemic]

Class Gastropoda, Subclass Prosobranchia


 Freshwater snail Catapyrgus spelaeus [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Hadopyrgus anops [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Hadopyrgus brevis [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Horatia nelsonensis [Climo, 1977]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Opacuincola caeca [Ponder, 1966]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Opacuincola kuscheli [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Paxillostium nanum [Gardner, 1970]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum
      [Gray, 1843] [endemic]

 Freshwater snail Potamopyrgus cresswelli [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted OL

 Freshwater snail Potamopyrgus dawbini [Powell, 1955]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Potamopyrgus estuarinus [Winterbourne, 1971]

 Freshwater snail Potamopyrgus gardneri [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Potamopyrgus pupoides [Hutton, 1882]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater snail Potamopyrgus manneringi [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted DP

 Freshwater snail Potamopyrgus subterraneus [Suter, 1905]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Potamopyrgus troglodytes [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted OL

 Freshwater snail Saganoa inflata [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater snail Saganoa mica [Climo, 1974]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

2012 New Zealand Threat Classification System listings are shown in teal.

Image above: Koura (freshwater crayfish) Paranephrops planifrons
Photo Stephen Moore, Crown Copyright © Department of Conservation

See more on koura
Native freshwater fish species list

Class Gastropoda ... continued


 Freshwater limpet Latia climoi [Starobogatov, 1986] [endemic]
      [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater limpet Latia neritoides [Gray, 1850] [endemic]


 Freshwater snail Lymnaea tomentosa [Pfeiffer, 1855]
      Freshwater snail Lymnaea tomentosa tomentosa
            [endemic] [1] Nationally critical
      Freshwater snail Lymnaea tomentosa hamiltoni [Dell, 1956]
            [endemic] Extinct


 Freshwater snail Melanopsis trifasciata [Gray, 1843] [endemic]


 Freshwater snail Ferrissia dohrnianus [Clessin, 1882]

 Freshwater snail Ferrissia neozelanica [Suter, 1905]

 Freshwater snail Planorbis corinna [Gray, 1850] [endemic]

 Freshwater snail Planorbis kahuica [Finlay & Laws, 1931]

 Freshwater snail Physastra oconnori [Cumber, 1941]
      [endemic] Extinct

 Freshwater snail Physastra variabillis [Gray, 1843] [Endemic]

Order Isopoda


 Freshwater isopod Austridotea annectens [Nicholls, 1937]
      [endemic] [6] Sparse

 Freshwater isopod Austridotea benhami [Nicholls, 1938]
      [endemic] [7] Range restricted

 Freshwater isopod Austridotea lacustris [endemic]


 Freshwater amphipod Neophreatoicus assimilis [Chilton, 1894]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater amphipod Notamphisopus benhami [Nicholls, 1944]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater amphipod Notamphisopus dunedinensis
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater amphipod Notamphisopus flavius [Nicholls, 1937]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater amphipod Notamphisopus kirkii [Nicholls, 1937]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient OL

 Freshwater amphipod Notamphisopus littoralis [Nicholls, 1937]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater amphipod Phreatoicus oraii [Nicholls, 1944]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater amphipod Notamphisopus percevali [Nicholls, 1937]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient

 Freshwater amphipod Phreatoicus typicus [Chilton, 1883]

Order Dorylaimida


 Freshwater nematode Miconchus rex [Cobb, 1904]
      [endemic] [8] Data deficient OL

Order Lecithoepitheliata


 Freshwater flatworm Prorhynchus haswelli
      [Steinböck & Reisinger, 1924] [endemic] [6] Sparse DP

 Freshwater flatworm Prorhynchus putealis [Haswell, 1898]
      [endemic] [6] Sparse DP

Order Notostraca


 Tadpole shrimp (kouraura wai maori) Lepiduris viridus
      [endemic] [6] Sparse

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